ISTQB CTFL – The Facts About the Certification and the Exam

The ISTQB CTFL is the foundation level exam for anyone who wants to undertake a basic test of his/her knowledge as regards software testing. Just like ISEB offers the ISEB foundation, ISTQB offers the CTFL as a beginner’s certification for anyone who wants to test their abilities as a software test engineer. Of course there are other courses to follow such as the iISEB Intermediate; the certified foundation level test is the gateway to the ISTQB ladder of certifications. With this test the candidate comes to know his/her capabilities as far as software testing are concerned, from a beginner’s perspective. Later on the person can attempt the higher certifications in order to boost his/her credentials in the field of software testing.

As far as the requirements for appearing in this ISTQB CTFL is concerned, there really isn’t much. The person has to be qualified for work (assuming a degree in computer science), if the person has some knowledge of testing that is good but not a requirement for this test. As such the test is divided in several parts which cover different aspects of ISTQB syllabus for CTFL. As the person prepares this course he/she realizes how important these chapters are in terms of understanding the basic process or flow of software testing.

As such everybody has some idea about testing. However, putting it to practice using the proper way, is something which is to be learned with time. And the ISTQB offers just the right test for it. If you read their course and the contents you will understand that most or some of the parts were already known to you while you were doing the testing activities on any project. It is just that a person doesn’t realize it in a systematic manner. So basically this syllabus of CTFL makes sure that the person reads the material in an informed and systematic way. This, in turn helps the person in becoming aware of the international standards on software testing.

The various areas that are there for the person to study include (but not limited to) fundamentals of testing, Testing through the software life cycle and Test design techniques. In essence, a person really knows what these things are before he/she begins testing. But the person might or might not be aware of the sequence of activities, like before we begin testing we need to have a clear overview of requirements, of the business case, so forth. So reading this syllabus really makes a person realize how important it is to know the various phases of software lifecycle and the role of the software test engineer in each of them. And also the sequence of activities that the test engineer is supposed to perform and understand during the lifecycle. That enables a person to increase his/her basic understanding of the software lifecycle as well as learn the importance of software testing. More learning is to follow, of course but the basic foundation has to be there, which is what the ISTQB CTFL provides to the candidates.

Cisco CCNA Certification Exam Tutorial: ISDN Details You Must Know

CCNA exam success depends partially on knowing the details of ISDN, and there are plenty of them! To help you review for your CCNA exam, here are a few ISDN details that you must know on exam day. (They help in the real world, too – and there are still plenty of ISDN networks out there!

The Cisco-proprietary version of HDLC is the default encapsulation type for serial and ISDN interfaces.

R2#show interface serial0

Serial0 is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is HD64570

MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation HDLC, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)

While there’s only one D-channel in BRI, PRI (US) and PRI (EU), the bandwidth of that D-channel does vary from BRI to PRI. It’s 16 kbps in BRI and 64 kbps in both PRI versions.

The global command isdn switch-type must be configured before you can even begin to have ISDN work. show isdn status will tell you whether or not you’ve done this correctly.

R2#show isdn status

**** No Global ISDN Switchtype currently defined ****

ISDN BRI0 interface

dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = none

Layer 1 Status:


Layer 2 Status:

Layer 2 NOT Activated

Layer 3 Status:

0 Active Layer 3 Call(s)

PAP allows passwords to be different; CHAP requires that they be the same.

PAP requires the “ppp pap sent-username” interface-level command. CHAP has no equivalent command.

Define interesting traffic with dialer-list and link that list to the interface with dialer-group.

R2#conf t

R2(config)#dialer-list 1 proto ip permit

R2(config)#int bri0

R2(config-if)#dialer-group 1

The dialer idle-timeout value is expressed in seconds, not minutes. (Even IOS Help isn’t totally clear on this.)

R2(config)#int bri0

R2(config-if)#dialer-group 1

R2(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout ?

Idle timeout before disconnecting a call

R2(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout 120

Dialer map maps a remote IP address to a remote phone number. You never dial the local router’s phone number.

dialer load-threshold requires the ppp multilink command to be configured, and the value of dialer load-threshold is expressed as a ratio of 255, NOT 100. For example, if you want the second b-channel to come up when the first reaches 50% of capacity, the value to express with dialer load-threshold would be 50% of 255 – which equals 127.

R2(config)#int bri0

R2(config-if)#encap ppp

R2(config-if)#ppp multilink

R2(config-if)#dialer load-threshold ?

Load threshold to place another call

Success on the CCNA exam depends on knowing the details. Keep studying, keep practicing on real Cisco routers and switches, keep a positive attitude, and you’re on your way to CCNA exam success!